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Why is there an urgent need for water conservation in India?

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Let's go back to our school days, where we have learnt that water is an essential element of life and there are the only 97% seawater and 3% fresh water available on earth.

Out of 3%, only less than 1% is available for us and rest are locked up in glaciers, polar ice caps, atmosphere, and soil.
So one thing is quite clear that we have a finite water resource available with us, and we have to manage and use it wisely to meet our water demand in various sectors.
Talking about freshwater in India, here are some facts that we all must know:India withdraws the Highest amount of freshwater in the world.India is a groundwater economy. At 260 cubic km per year, our country is the highest user of groundwater in the world—we use 25% of all groundwater extracted globally, ahead of the US and China.India has only about 4 per cent of the world's renewable water resources but is home to nearly 18 per cent of the world's population.There are two major sources of freshwater in India: 59% fre…

Here are four reasons what causes water stress in India

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Before we learn about the causes, we will first understand a bit about water stress.
Water stress occurs when there is not enough water for agriculture, industrial and domestic use.
Or
When water demand exceeds the available water during a certain period of time.

Water Demand > Water Availability = Water Stress!
Here are the four major reasons that cause water stress in India:
1- Over Consumption:  The water use efficiency in developed countries is 50 – 60% as compared to only 38% in India. 
2- Water Pollution:  About 70% of surface water in India is polluted. So when the water is polluted, that means it's not readily available for direct use. This reduces available water and may also cause water stress.
3- Population: India is one of the most populated countries in the world. The increased population in urban areas increases the water demand of the city, which may lead to water stress.
4-  Climate change: Climate change impacts the water cycle by influencing when, where, and how much p…

Know Your Soil Type : Irrigation Guide

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Soil is the primary reservoir for plants from where they intake water though roots for their growth and development.
Based on the particle size distribution, typically the soil is divided into the three main categories; sand, clay and loam. Each type of soil handles water differently and have different water holding capacity.
Sandy soil needs more frequent irrigation than the loamy soil as the sandy soil has less water holding capacity means it can hold less water than the loamy soil.
Knowing your soil type helps you in the irrigation scheduling and determining the right amount of watering needs. Here are some quick tests to help determine your soil type.
TEST 1: The Bottle Test Put 5 cm of soil in a glass bottle and fill it with water


Stir the water and soil well, let it sit for an hour. At the end of an hour, the water will have cleared and you will see that the larger particles have settled.
At the bottom is a layer of sand, in the middle is a layer of silt and on the top a layer of clay.…

7 Amazing Facts You Didn't Know About Biodiversity of India

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Each year, 22 May is celebrated as world biodiversity day. Biodiversity holds ecological and economic significance. It provides us with nourishment, housing, fuel, clothing and several other resources. It also extracts monetary benefits through tourism. 
India is one of the recognized mega-diverse countries in the world. Here are the 7 amazing facts that you must know about the biodiversity of India.

Here's What Happens to the Sewage on a Cruise Ship

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On average, a passenger on the cruise ship uses 200-250 litre water per day. A lot of sewage is generated due to the thousands of people on board every day. 
But have you ever wondered where does the sewage on a cruise ship go? 
The sewage on the cruise ship includes the wastewater from the bathrooms, toilets, urinals, medical premises and other similar facilities.

When it comes to handling, treatment and disposal of sewage on the ship. It must be done as per the international maritime laws.
MARPOL- Annex IV is an international regulation which prohibits any vessels or offshore platforms from direct disposal of sewage into the sea.

According to this regulation, the sewage can be discharged into the seawater only after it is treated and the distance of the ship is 4 nautical miles from the nearest land. 
But if the sewage is not treated this can be discharged 12 nautical miles away from the nearest land.
Additionally, the discharged sewage should not produce any visible floating solids nor s…

CPCB Issues Guidelines To Deal With Coronavirus-Related Biomedical Waste

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In India, according to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), A total of 27,688 samples from 26,798 individuals have been tested for SARS-CoV2 as on 27th March 2020, 9:00 AM IST. 
Biomedical wasteis any waste that is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunisation of human beings, animals or research activities etc. It could include human tissues, items contaminated with blood, plaster casts, body fluids like dressings, cotton swabs, blood bags, needles, beddings contaminated with blood or body fluid, syringes, or any other contaminated sharp object.
In order to ensure safe disposal of biomedical waste generated during treatment, diagnosis and quarantine of patients with the novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), Central pollution control board (CPCB), has released new guidelines
These guidelines provide a series of steps for handling, treatment and disposal of COVID-19 waste at Healthcare Facilities, Quarantine Camps/ Quarantine-homes/ Home-care, Sample Collection C…

Risk of Contamination in Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting

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There has been a growing interest, especially in developing nations like India, in rooftop rainwater harvesting as an alternative source of freshwater. 
Rooftop rainwater harvesting involves the collection and storage of water from rooftops. Generally, rainwater is free from impurities except those picked up by rain from the atmosphere, but the quality of rainwater may deteriorate during harvesting, storage and reuse.
Microbiological Contamination
Microbial contamination of collected rainwater indicated by E. coli (or thermotolerant coliforms) is quite common, particularly in samples collected shortly after rainfall. 
Many research publications from different regions reported 24- 92% of harvested rainwater samples positive for microbial contamination.

Higher microbial concentrations are generally found in the first flush of rainwater, and the level of contamination reduces as the rain continues.
Heavy Metals
Rainwater is slightly acidic in nature and it can dissolve heavy metals and ot…