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Showing posts from October, 2018

Water Positive Campus

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What is Water Positive Campus?
“A commercial or residential developments are said to be water positive when they are creating more water than they are using.or “A water positive campus produces more water than it consumes.”
How can it be Achieved?
There are three ways by which campus can become water positive:
1) Rainwater Harvesting: We have already discussed earlier rainwater potential in India. Harvesting rainwater is the simplest way to conserve water. This water can be used for drinking and other purposes after treatment or it can be transferred to GW recharge pit for groundwater recharge.
2) Wastewater treatment, Recycling and reuse: Recycling wastewater after treatment is next step towards being water positive. About 50 percent of domestic wastewater generated can be reused after treatment. For an efficient treatment, microSTP is a electro-coagulation based low-cost treatment plant which can be installed in small homes to large campuses.
3) Optimizing Water Use: It means reducing the…

Wastewater Generation, Treatment and Reuse

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In India, wastewater generation from all class-I cities and class-II towns is 38254 MLD and treatment capacity is 11787 MLD, which is about 30 % of total sewage. About 70% of wastewater remain untreated and discharged in water streams like rivers and ocean leaving them polluted.
Average domestic water consumption pattern
In urban India, about 48,000 MLD water is supplied and on average a person uses 165 litres of water per day. The chart and table below show the break up of per capita domestic water use pattern.


Micro STP for Greywater Treatment and Reuse Greywater is wastewater from non-toilet plumbing fixtures such as showers, basins and taps. Almost 50% of the water supplied for domestic use, comes out as greywater.
         Micro STP is small-scale sewage treatment plant designed for the domestic greywater treatment. Treatment processes, it may employ biological, chemical, mechanical or electrochemical means. The treated water should be free from any kind of harmful bacteria/pathogens,…

Rainwater Harvesting Potential in India

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Water has been considered as a free resource for years. With the rapid growth in population and increasing demand for water on one hand and depletion of available water on the other has led India to acute water stress. This article explains the rainwater harvesting potential in India and how it can save us from becoming a water-scarce nation.

Rainfall In India On average, India receives about 4,000 cubic kilometres of rains annually or about 1,720 cubic metres of freshwater per person every year, out of which 700 cubic kilometres is immediately lost of the atmosphere, 2150 cubic kilometres soaks into the ground, and 1150 cubic kilometres flows as surface run-off. More than 70 % of the annual rainfall occurs during its monsoon seasons (June to September), with the northeast and north receiving far more rains than India's west and south. India currently stores only 6% of its annual rainfall or 253 billion cubic metres, while developed nations strategically store 250% of the annual rain…